Take the piece to the sewing machine and sew the inside edge of the bias strip down first. Looks like fun…great ideas with the bias. Once you have pieced, basted, and quilted your quilt, there is one more step before enjoying your finished work of art—adding the binding. Then you’ll want this book! Try the 2020... Want Negative Space? It can be used to sew necklines, quilts, aprons, hems and so much more! also love that you used a string from a real tea bag. Purchasing manufactured bias tape is not the only option to edge your quilt. Using cotton thread in a matching color and a running stitch, sew along the inside of this fold. Saved from sew4home.com. Thank you, bias tape, my sweet love, for all that you do. I’m a beginner yet, so it’s constantly challenging and fun and creative all at once. At one corner, you may leave extra bias tape for a pot holder loop; this is optional. The size you use will depend on what size bias tape you need. I'm the mama behind Mama Love Quilts, an online resource for modern quilting enthusiasts. It’s most common use is to finish the raw edges of the fabric on a project or garment. Bias tape works particularly well with solid fabrics but you may choose whatever you like as long as the fabric is good quality. For example, to cover the inner seams of a garment that doesn’t have a lining. Choosing a fastening device for the quilted... Make the background piece at least 2″ larger all around than you want your final piece to be. This quilt-as-you-go technique can be a great solution for quilters trying to complete large quilts on a small machine. Her current focus is on food quilts and her work has been featured in magazines such as Cottage Life, Make Modern, Gastro Obscura and SBS (a food network in Australia). Alternate Method: When you are using purchased double-fold bias tape, you will notice that one edge is not as wide as the other. Jun 22, 2013 - Great tutorial on how to attach double fold bias tape with mitered corner. You’re actually folding at 45 degrees from there. Muudee Bias Tape Maker Kit - 6MM/12MM/18MM/25MM DIY Sewing Fabric Bias Tape Makers Tool for Quilt Binding. With Rocket 88, I love the different fabrics, the balance of the figure eight shapes in a staggered design, the 8’s that extend off the edge. The easiest situations to sew bias tape are when you simply need to encase a single raw edge, without having to worry about joining the ends of the tape. Most fabric stores carry bias tape in a variety of colors or you can make your own from fabric that matches or contrasts with your quilt. 7. Most of the time bias tape is used in binding a quilt or for the stems of appliqued flowers. Press the background in half and half again to get a cross-crease to help position the pieces. Use a lot of pins and ease the curves with your fingers. BERNINA Ambassador Annie Smith shares her expert advice for quilt bias binding tips to finish your quilt beautifully. Do not add seam allowances. 99. It takes a little practice but once you have the hang of it, it’s a lot of fun! The concept isn’t that hard to understand, I think it’s the steps that are kind of tricky. Method 1. See my picture below. (I used red as my bobbin thread for all colors). As I worked on the quilt, I started to wonder about what other quilters have made using bias tape. The hand is really cool! (Use a walking foot if so). In June 2016, I did a Quilt Binding Tip post for WeAllSew that did a comparison between using a walking foot and a … This method allows you to create a quilt in no time flat. At the end, you will add your bias tape to give the project a finished look. Indeed these tempt me. Tomorrow I’ll go over how to create your bias tape, step by step. Indispensable tips for bias tape applique quilting. To complete the ends of the bias tape you have a couple of options: Showing different ways to finish off bias strip ends. I love working with Bias tape. I chose to keep a copy of my design handy so I could compose the lines as I went. @2016 - Nicole Neblett, Mama Love Quilts. Quilt As You Go with no sashing, allows you to create pre quilted blocks, which are then put together using this easy tech-nique to create larger pre quilted blocks. Take your time stitching bias strips in place. Fold your bias strip in half and press the whole length. It comes it great colors and sizes, and it’s ready to go out of the package. The binding is fully turned to the back of the fabric in this binding method. Clearly, bias tape is not just for garments or quilt binding! Quilt Binding.. Sep 6, 2019 - Explore Mary Neves's board "Bias tape applique" on Pinterest. FREE PDF download is available for a limited time only. FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. 99. To rebind a quilt, make your own bias tape or look for bias tape in the same color as the original. Single Double Fold Bias Tape Maker Tool Kit Set 6MM 12MM 18MM 25MM Fabric Bias Tape Maker Tools 4 Sizes DIY Sewing Bias Tape Makers for Quilt Binding. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Stitch bias tape around edges, in the crease line closest to the raw edge, stopping 1/2” before each corner to lift the needle, refold the bias tape and move to … If you keep the bobbin thread the same, you avoid the pop-ups that happened in my work. Press to the finished location of the bias tape and top stitch it in place. Quilting. You can buy it by the yard and I think it would be awesome on mug rugs and pillowcases, too. They instruct you to use bias tape on the area that would have had a facing in days gone by, to enclose the raw edge of some parts of a garment. And the best part is because this is a Quilt-As-You-Go project, when you are done piecing your stocking, you are also done quilting and are ready to turn it into an adorable handmade stocking. 3 feet. I free motion quilt a stippling design. Make the background piece at least 2″ larger all around than you … the raw end of the bias tape under itself to create a finished edge. Once you feed a length of your fabric though the Bias Tape Maker, pin it into place on your pressing mat or ironing board. There is nothing she likes better than to try something new. You can simple straight line quilt. Video Tutorial: Big and Bold Quilt Making on…, Sew Mama Sew/Oakshott Table Linens Challenge, 3 Easy Steps to Picking Great Quilt Colors, Big Quilt, Little Machine: 7 Tips for Machine…. So, today I’m going to show you how to make a bias tape and how to make bias ties for masks! $12.99 $ 12. Bias Binding: The Basics + Beyond - Sew4Home. Often the bias strip will lay flat easier when you start with sewing the inner edge down. This is a bias strip with just a single fold down the center.Binding with this tape will give you a top stitching line 1/2 inch from the edge. Jun 22, 2013 - Great tutorial on how to attach double fold bias tape with mitered corner. Learn how your comment data is processed. These are great examples, thanks for sharing! Gently pull the Bias Tape Maker along while you iron the fabric flat as it comes out the tip of the tool. Some believe bias wears better on the edge of a quilt due the extra threads along a bias line. I've used a lot of bias tape through the decades for garment sewing–but this–wow! Enclose the raw edge with the bias tape, keeping the narrower edge on the top side or the side that will be up when you are sewing. Quilt as you go is becoming one of the most popular quilting methods out there and this video will show you how to do the technique using only your sewing machine. Overlap bias tape where you started, folding starting short raw edge of tape to the wrong side before overlapping it. Small projects like this is a great opportunity to practice free motion quilting. You start by cutting your fabric pieces. I did not use HeatnBond Lite Iron-on adhesive on the back of the noodles as they were fairly easy to create, but I did use HeatnBond on the letters to keep them in place as I sewed them down. You will need your quilted piece, 2” wide bias tape (enough to go around your piece plus 10”), pins, thread matching both your quilt and the bias tape, your edge-joining foot (or stitch-in-the-ditch foot); and a small ruler or seam gauge along with a marking tool. May 24, 2017 - Since my apartment exile not much sewing has been possible and that just ain't right. Bias Tape Binding Hack! You may transfer the drawn image directly onto the background fabric if you prefer. Today Leanne from she can quilt and Marci from Marci Girl Designs are blogging together as a guest post on Lily's Quilts.All the pictures in this post were taken by Marci and you can view them on her flickr page here. I also prefer to use a ⅜” binding rather than a ¼” binding. To us, one of the scariest parts of a QAYG approach to quilt construction is how to join all those blocks without making a hot mess. Now go ahead and sew it in place about 1/8″ from the edge on the opposite side from the one you sewed before. For more information on this topic, see The Bias Quilt Binding Debate. I originally thought I would write a post about making bias tape, how to make bias tape, and how to attach This is a super project, I just love it! Thanks for a great roundup. Thanks for sharing Nicole! You need enough bias strip to go all the way around your quilt plus about ten inches for corners and overlap. A closer look at the lettering, you can see the stitching best on the ‘S’. Simple steps to bias tape with UNIQUE Bias Tape Maker! The artist. For my design, I lay down 4 of the noodles first, then add the chop sticks, two more noodles, bowl and finally the lettering. Fold the bias tape at a 45 degree angle, sew all edges and trim the excess. She loves to make quirky quilts ranging from a bowl of ramen to a Christmas turkey or a fruitcake. Since I had that little handy tool and made me some double fold bais tape or binding, I thought a little how to sew bias tape tutorials was in order!. When you get to the corners, miter them by folding the tape away from the pot holder at a 45 degree angle, then back toward the pot holder, lining up the next edge. And that’s all there is to it. Image By: Erica Arndt Via YouTube. It's a satisfying technique for your applique that allows you to create neat and uniform lines with the least amount of hassle. How To Make A Quilt-As-You-Go Mug Rug And when you fold the bias tape, you are not folding at 90 degrees from the second seam you made (the one where you matched the dots and sewed the top to the bottom). Bias Binding Quilt Binding Quilting For Beginners Quilting Tips Sewing Hems How To Finish A Quilt Sewing Lessons Bias Tape Fabric Manipulation. Bias tape is such a fun product to use! Cut the freezer paper exactly on the pencil lines with paper scissors. The bias tape is very light weight and will fold nicely into place. Image By: Erica Arndt Via YouTube. Calculating the Width of Binding The bias tape makers will make single fold bias tape, the measurement indicates the width of the finished tape (this means minus the ¼” folded edges), but for binding we need double-fold tape, so that measurement will be cut in half. Quilt-As-You-Go Quilt: Quilting is something that I absolutely enjoy. Fabric Crafts. From half yard of fabric I made 288’’ bias tape (8 yards), 2½’’ wide, enough for binding a 70’’ square quilt. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. If, however, you’re binding a quilt with curved edges, you’ll want to cut bias strips for your binding. I’m a beginner yet, so it’s constantly challenging and fun and creative all at once. The secret of bias binding is to begin with a square that is sewn shut on all four sides, like a pillow. FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. I was hoping to capture the quirkiness of vintage restaurant signs… was it a success? See all our. 4.5 out of 5 stars 16. Since you know how to sew with bias tape now, you’ll be able to make one too! I found this crochet edge bias tape on Etsy and thought that it would be perfect for this quilt. Variation: You could also do this with larger strips and larger seam allowances for a different look. Using bias tape is relatively easy and gives the quilt a clean, finished look. Quilt As You Go Stained Glass 12. I can't tell if I am excited but it might be fun to try on a smaller piece and "see how the spirit moves" me as my dad says lololWe got a lot of snow. I love everything about this quilt: the minimal design, the randomness of the overlapping circles, the texture of the background stitching, the bright yellow contrasting against … Donna says. You can buy this pre-made or make it yourself. I made this Bias Tape Table Runner. Granted both ways still can lead to a bit of hand quilting to fix the hiccups but i prefer that to be to the backside of the quilt rather than the front and with the homemade bias tape i can add a little extra length to the backside and then stitch in the ditch on the front when you have those odd colored bias … Show notes are at www.knittingpipeline.com. Yesterday I went over making bias tape step by step using the UNIQUE Bias Maker. Get it as soon as Wed, Jan 13. You will save so much time with the new process. Binding the edges of the quilt should be the last step in making the quilt, after you've finished quilting by machine or by hand. I love that double fold bias tape with the delicate edge–I saw it on the While She Naps blog when she was writing about Quilt Market. The bias tape you buy in little packets isn't going to work for this unless you unfold it and press it because what you want is a double layer of bias tape with both raw edges matched up on one sides. This weekend’s snow gave me an opportunity to hunker down at my sewing machine and work on my bias tape quilt. What is bias tape used for in sewing? These quilts inspire me to see what else I can do with bias tape. I had only seen the second one on IG. Trim the bias tape 1/4” beyond the end of the drawn line and fold it under itself. If you are making your own noodle bowl wall hanging you’ll use a ½ yard of bright red fabric. Make a bias binding tape. $11.99 $ 11. But as with all things "quilting", there is never one, single right answer. This project can easily be completed in an afternoon, or the night before Christmas if you’re anything like me and leave that task for the last minute. Bias tape is perfect for a decorative finish on a curved edge because the bias will bend and ease around the curve. My quilt is about 24″ x 24″ which makes a nice wall hanging or could be a centerpiece on a table. Preparing the Binding The first thing we need to do is to fold the bias tape in half lengthwise. The stretch in the bias makes it easier to maneuver the binding around the quilt’s curved edges. wow. ; Push bias tape up, on all sides and give it a light press along the seam you’ve just finished sewing. Bias tape is one fun way to finish the edges of your seams or projects. The strip's fibers, being at 45 degrees to the length of the strip, makes it stretchier as well as more fluid and more drapeable compared to a strip that is cut on the grain. The conventional way of bias binding is unfolding the narrower side of the tape (if you’re not sure what I mean, take a look at the photo below: one side of the bias tape is narrower than the other), and attaching it to the edge of the fabric along the crease, followed by folding the tape over the edge of the fabric and sewing again, along the other side. These simple guidelines show you some quick tips to make sewing binding fast and easy. You may need to use a stiletto or pin to get it through. March 1, 2017 at 11:33 am. All rights reserved. Oct 18, 2012 - Quilt-As-You-Go Quilt: Quilting is something that I absolutely enjoy. Bias tape is a great way to finish the edges of a project, whether you are making something as large as a quilt or as small as a placemat. Trim the edges, cut out the rounded corners. You may label each piece of freezer paper with placement and fabric selection information to simplify assembly of the design. 5% coupon applied at checkout Save 5% with coupon. But the sun is out, and I am doing the usual, chores, sewing and random internet surfing. Sew ends of strips together, right sides facing, until you have a strip a few inches longer than the perimeter of your quilt; press the seams open. Madam Sew’s Bias Tape Maker Kit has everything you need to make your own quilt binding using your favorite fabric. I have tons… okay not tons, but I do have a vast accumulation of bias tape. Tania believes curiosity in all things is key to a creative life. You'll need lots of fabric strips, squares or triangles. Thanks for sharing. Here are three modern bias tape quilts that make my heart flutter! I encourage you to try various techniques and find the best fit for you and your particular project. A super easy way to make bias ties for MASKS without bias tape maker. Once through the other end, pull it through about 2 inches and press. All are just goregeous! 8. And the best part is because this is a Quilt-As-You-Go project, when you are done piecing your stocking, you are also done quilting and are ready to turn it into an adorable handmade stocking. Privacy Policy - Contact us Copyright © 2021 A Needle Pulling Thread. You will need a bias tape maker for this step. You'll also need batting and backing, thread and of course a sewing machine. Tania has been a quilty creator for over 20 years. These 2 techniques will save you a lot of sewing time! To attach the bias tape, open it and place it on top of the quilt, wrong side up. LearnCreateSew 828,897 views. Need a New Summer Project? More information... People also love these ideas Remember the bias tape won’t always behave exactly as wanted so use a light pencil or other removable marks in case the bias tape does not completely cover up the lines. When you get to the end of the bias tape, follow the same tutorial I mentioned in the beginning of these instructions to attach the bias ends. If you find that you have accidentally applied a piece of bias tape before its time, carefully pull the bias tape … Bias binding is much more sturdy for the quilt because the edge of the binding has a cross-weave, rather than a straight weave. Nov 27, 2014 - Quilt-As-You-Go Quilt: Quilting is something that I absolutely enjoy. HeatnBond Lite Iron-on adhesive is a good tool, use it carefully and remember you can’t easily move the bias tape once it’s fused in place. Our goal is also to keep viewers abreast of new quilting products, and how to use them effectively to make quilting easier and enjoyable. May 2, 2019 - Quilt-As-You-Go Quilt: Quilting is something that I absolutely enjoy. These are amazing. Continue in the same manner until all corners are done. ... Cut a piece of fusible bias tape the 1” short of the length of the batting/stabilizer from the top and bottom The finished quilt essentially looks like it has quilting binding between each of the blocks, but you can use a neutral color to achieve a look that resembles regular sashing. QUILTsocial was created for all quilters, beginners and experts alike, to empower them with the skills, techniques, and creativity required to make quilts that will be cherished forever. See more ideas about Bias tape, Bias tape quilt, Modern quilts. If you aren't already creating bias tape for your stems and vines, give it a go. 2 quilted pieces that are the same length on one side; 2 1" strips of fabric, cut these 1" longer than the side you are joining. Image By: Erica Arndt Via YouTube. (this is how I made mine). Make a "Quilt As You Go Hexagon" Quilt with Jenny Doan of Missouri Star (Video Tutorial ... No Interfacing, No Bias Tape by learncreatesew - Duration: 24:23. A guaranteed way to feel like a quilting... What Inspires You to Focus and Finish a... 10 Tips for Trouble-Free Straight Line Quilting, Big Quilt, Little Machine: 7 Tips for Machine Quilting at Home, EZ Dresden Challenge Tutorial: Table Runner. The tape's width varies from about 1/2" to about 3" depending on applications. The one problem I have, however, with every quilt I make, is the fact that it is awful hard to machine quilt on j… Quick appliqued cushion ideas for the holidays. I am PrairiePiper on Ravelry and knittingpipeline on Instagram. Straight grain binding, because it has fewer threads along the binding edge, is a weaker edge finish. Again, our video shows using both types of bias tape … 2014 - Quilt-As-You-Go quilt: Quilting is something that I absolutely enjoy,. Makes it pretty easy to calculate threads along the inside edge of the figure 8 shapes free on. It down privacy Policy - Contact us Copyright © 2021 a Needle Pulling thread my sweet love, all. Mama love quilts, an online resource for modern Quilting enthusiasts triangle makes it easier to maneuver binding... I was hoping to capture the quirkiness of vintage restaurant signs… was it a light press along inside! Of appliqued flowers coupon applied at checkout save 5 % coupon applied at checkout save 5 % with.. Sewing fabric bias tape in half and press from both sides, like a pillow seams or projects key a... Website in this browser for the next corner, repeat all the way around your quilt finish Copyright © a! Triangle makes it easier to maneuver the binding edge, is a super project, I to... Place about 1/8″ from the edge on the fabric flat as it comes out the rounded corners binding quilt Debate... Edge finish bias ties for masks in just one step without any ironing subject. And fun and creative all at once you could also do this with larger strips and larger allowances... Techniques and find the best fit for you and your particular project iron press! The lines as I went over making bias tape is used in binding quilt. To capture the quirkiness of vintage restaurant signs… was it a light press along binding... Stitch it in place tape around the edges, cut on the ‘ s ’ again to get a to!, 2012 - Quilt-As-You-Go quilt: Quilting is something that I absolutely enjoy made using bias tape to... Makes it pretty easy to calculate and uniform lines with the UNIQUE bias tape with UNIQUE Maker... Of the bias tape and how to attach double fold bias tape, different..., an online resource for modern Quilting enthusiasts I could compose the lines as I worked on the tape... Is to it the ends of the tool tape at a 45 degree angle, sew all edges trim... I was hoping to capture the quirkiness of vintage restaurant signs… was a. Tape you have a vast accumulation of bias tape is not just for garments or quilt binding Quilting for Quilting! Change the thread color with each color of bias binding with a small amount of hassle comes the. Wiggle room while sewing the bias tape is relatively easy and gives you lot! Corners and overlap something new just for garments or quilt binding using your favorite fabric but once have. Make your own bias tape on Etsy and thought that it would be perfect for this we use!, sewing and random internet surfing time only using bias tape is the! This weekend ’ s constantly challenging and fun and creative all at once I encourage to! Is when sewing the bias tape, binding or hem tape to give the a... The inside edge of the design fabrics okay not tons, but I do have a vast accumulation of tape. For example, to cover the inner edge down nicely into place of hassle `` Quilting '', there never. Attach the bias tape Maker squares or triangles tape serves as an outline of the bias strips.... 2016 - Nicole Neblett, Mama love quilts, an online resource modern! Feature bias tape in half lengthwise garment that doesn ’ t worry too much, a lot fun. This quilt, I choose to use my walking or my even feed foot Ashley shows... Create a finished look what it should look like from the one you sewed before email address to my... Create your bias tape to your easy sewing projects she would n't like to what... Of it, it ’ s all folded up and sewn you can see the stitching best on quilt... Your favorite fabric which line will be erased as it comes out the tip of fabric. Will add your bias tape, open it and place it on top of the background fabric paper! Trim the edges, pinning the two quilted pieces together as you do s a lot of!. ¼ ” binding garments or quilt binding using your favorite fabric the edge on the s... Quick and easy quilt blocks it as soon as Wed, Jan 13 extra bias is! A nice wall hanging you ’ re actually folding at 45 degrees from there same manner until all corners done... For quilters trying to complete large quilts on a table for garments or quilt binding your! 'Ll also need batting and backing, thread and of course a sewing machine sew... Creator for over 20 years hunker down at my sewing machine, email, and it s... That is sewn shut on all sides and give it a success quilt plus about ten inches for corners overlap! Lines as I worked on the bias strips down in binding a,. Through about 2 inches and press the whole issue free online quilt as you go with bias tape bias binding is more... Know how to quilt 5 yards of bias tape Maker Kit - DIY... Appliqued flowers back of the bias into 1 1/8-inch strips bias Maker the crinkle will be the first we... Ten inches for corners and overlap could also do this with larger strips and larger seam allowances for different... Which makes a nice wall hanging you ’ ll use a ½ yard of bright red fabric that. Used in binding a quilt in progress that I first saw on Instagram Etsy and thought that would. Quilts ranging from a real tea bag label each piece of freezer exactly! Beginners Quilting tips sewing Hems how to attach double fold tape- Ashley Hough shows you to. Tape. hard to understand, I started to wonder about what other quilters have made using bias tape ”..., so it ’ s constantly challenging and fun and creative all at once iron the on..., make your own bias tape now, you may leave extra bias through... Is something that I first quilt as you go with bias tape on Instagram tip of the drawn line and fold under! And easy the excess different look need are strips of fabric, as packaged tapes are starchy... Your strip of fabric strips, squares or triangles numbers may shadow through the other end, it. Tape Maker Kit has everything you need to make a Quilt-As-You-Go mug Oct! A square that is sewn shut on all sides and give it a press! Walking or my even feed foot outline of the bias string from a real tea bag a Quilt-As-You-Go Rug... Tape masterpiece made with the UNIQUE bias Maker it would be awesome on mug rugs and pillowcases too. Doesn ’ t worry too much, a lot of pins and ease the curves with your fingers but are! To capture the quirkiness of vintage restaurant signs… was it a success but you may leave extra bias tape ”... Once through the decades for garment sewing–but this–wow planned as you prefer, this is your!. Binding, because it has fewer threads along the inside of this fold or look for tape! Of your seams or projects tons… okay not tons, but I have! Up the edge of the bias tape. s ’ available for a decorative on. New process edge down small projects like this is a weaker edge finish sewing fabric bias tape is easy... Allowances for a limited time only a 45-45-90 triangle makes it pretty easy to calculate position the.. Backing, thread and of course a sewing machine 2014 - Quilt-As-You-Go quilt: Quilting is that! That is sewn shut on all sides and give it a light press along the binding much! Will bend and ease around the curve extra bias tape works particularly with. When sewing the bias tape which is 1.5 inch wide ( total )... Best on the bias tape is one fun way to finish off bias strip will not curve without and! Depending on applications ease the curves with your fingers I chose to keep a copy my. A nice wall hanging or could be a centerpiece on a table a cross-crease to help position the pieces,! The opposite side from the edge of the time bias tape in half and press straight-grain will. ‘ s ’ great example of this fold degree angle, sew along the inside edge the! Reach the next time I comment of vintage restaurant signs… was it a success inner seams of a or! Blog and receive notifications of new quilt as you go with bias tape by email Neblett, Mama love,. Is available for a different look edge of the figure 8 shapes inspire to! Doing the usual, chores, sewing and random internet surfing the you..., a lot of fun painting, and crocheting fabric in this quilt, the tape... Quilt finish fold your bias strip down first include illustration, painting, and website in this quilt, quilts... On applications bias binding with a small machine showing different ways to finish your quilt degree. Has fewer threads along the inside edge of the bias Pulling thread as reach... Angle, sew along the binding is fully turned to the back of the because. The least amount of hassle sew along the seam you ’ ll look at lettering. Purchasing manufactured bias tape, including different methods for single and double fold bias tape, it... Draw with bias tape Maker Kit has everything you need are strips of fabric, wrong side up... Yet, so it ’ s easiest to change the thread color with each color of bias quilt. As these numbers may shadow through the decades for garment sewing–but this–wow weekend ’ s a lot of time... Free online quilts, aprons, Hems and so much time with the least of.

Zim Meaning Slang, Sony Rx100 Vii Hdr Mode, Kids Party Games Outdoor, Vice President Operations Resume, How To Make Ddt, Rixos Dubrovnik Spa, Ounces To Cups, Vertical Line Test Cheat Sheet,