The Alpine Fault is a major plate boundary structure, which accommodates up to 50-80% of the total plate boundary motion across the South Island of New Zealand. Please note: The What’s On Our Plates? frequency seismic energy seen at major plate boundaries. The Alpine Fault is one of the world's most intensively studied faultlines. What’s On Our Plates? You can pick out the line of the Alpine Fault on this satellite image of the South Island. LEITNER ETAL. [citation needed], The western side, the plate is bounded by the Okhotsk Plate at the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the Japan Trench, forms a convergent boundary by subducting under the Philippine Sea Plate creating the Mariana Trench, has a transform boundary with the Caroline Plate, and has a collision boundary with the North Bismarck Plate. The Alpine Fault (AF) is a major continental plate boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates, linking oppositely-dipping subduction zones in New Zealand. The southern part of Zealandia, which is to the east of this boundary, is the plate's largest block of continental crust. The Alpine Fault is one of the world's major plate boundaries and New Zealand's most hazardous earthquake-generating fault. The San Andreas fault of California is a prime example of a continental transform boundary; others are the North Anatolian fault of northern Turkey, the Alpine fault crossing New Zealand, the Dead Sea rift in the Middle East, the Queen Charlotte Islands fault off western Canada, and the Magellanes-Fagnano fault system of South America. Dive to the bottom of the Pacific Ocean to learn about the features of the Hikurangi Trench in 3D. At a transform boundary, two tectonic plates slide past each other. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand. Answer to: Is the Alpine Fault convergent, divergent, or transform? In the region of New Zealand, the 3000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. [5], The north-eastern side is a divergent boundary with the Explorer Plate, the Juan de Fuca Plate and the Gorda Plate forming respectively the Explorer Ridge, the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Gorda Ridge. The first three modules have been aligned to Level 4-6 Achievement Objectives from the Science Learning Area of the New Zealand Curriculum and are accompanied by a Teacher Guide to support their use in the classroom. It runs as a single structure for over 500 km. learning modules, with more coming soon. The Alpine Fault runs right through the heart of New Zealand's glacier county on the country's south island. The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. A: The Hikurangi Trench and Alpine Fault form part of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary that transects New Zealand. It’s the "on-land" boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. The Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, is one of the world’s major geological features. The Alpine Fault is one of the world's major plate boundaries and New Zealand's most hazardous earthquake-generating fault. In the simple, introductory textbook explanation, the Alpine Fault plate boundary system through South Island, New Zealand is simply a "San Andreas-like continental transform that links two subduction zones. At a transform boundary, two tectonic plates slide past each other. The Alpine Fault forms part of the on-land Pacific-Australian plate boundary. [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. We want you to really understand what you'll be looking at when you're up at the fault, so before we go, we'll give you a short educational introduction to the geological process of plate tectonics - and where New Zealand fits in. [4] Bird considers them to be unconnected. The Discovery Tour begins at the Alpine Fault Tours shop in Whataroa. In the south of the Island, it joins the east-directed Fiordland subduction zone while in the north, it splits into several strands that link with the west-directed North Island subduction zone. The Pacific Plate is almost entirely oceanic crust, but it contains some continental crust in New Zealand, Baja California, and coastal California. There are currently three What’s On Our Plates? Find out how it was discovered and learn what science can tell us about Alpine Fault earthquakes. Although predominantly associated with subduction zones, tremor also occurs along the deep extension of the strike-slip San Andreas Fault. [3], The Pacific Plate has the distinction of showing one of the largest areal sections of the oldest members of seabed geology being entrenched into eastern Asian oceanic trenches. In between the Hikurangi Subduction Zone and the Alpine Fault is a broad area of complex active faults, called the Marlborough Fault System. The type of plate boundary at the Alpine Fault is a transform boundary. The "Pacific Triangle", the oldest part of the Pacific Plate, created during the initial stages of plate formation, is located just east of the Mariana Trench. In the middle of the eastern side is a transform boundary with the North American Plate along the San Andreas Fault, and a boundary with the Cocos Plate. It forms the sharp line separating the snow-covered Southern Alps in the east from the low coastal plain bordering the Tasman Sea in the west. This fault has ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. We recommend using Google Chrome, the maps will not work in Internet Explorer. The Alpine fault marks the plate boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates, which are converging obliquely at a rate of--36 mm/yr parallel and 10 mm/yr normal to the fault (37 mm/yr relative plate motion at 43.5ø,170 0 ø, calculated with . Tectonics setting of New Zealand. At 103 million km2 (40 million sq mi), it is the largest tectonic plate. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. A smaller number connect mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones. Alpine Fault at Gaunt Creek, J.Thomson / GNS Science Here you can get right up close to the plate boundary fault that runs the length of the South Island. Take a tour of Aotearoa New Zealand’s plate boundary, starting with the earth’s structure, tectonic plates, the Pacific Ring of Fire. Then explore where the Australian and Pacific plates meet. The southern part of Zealandia, which is to the east of this boundary, is the plate's largest block of … It’s the "on-land" boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. It forms the sharp line separating the snow-covered Southern Alps in the east from the low coastal plain bordering the Tasman Sea in the west. What’s On Our Plates? Most transform faults are found in the ocean basin and connect offsets in the mid-ocean ridges. Visible from space, it marks the boundary between the Pacific and Australian crustal plates … The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. Spot the fault. learning modules, with more coming soon. [citation needed], In the south-west, the Pacific Plate has a complex but generally convergent boundary with the Indo-Australian Plate, subducting under it north of New Zealand forming the Tonga Trench and the Kermadec Trench. [2], The Pacific Plate contains an interior hot spot forming the Hawaiian Islands. The type of plate boundary at the Alpine Fault is a transform boundary. It forms a transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. The Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, is one of the world’s major geological features. This study analyzes 195 earthquakes recorded during the 6 month duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) in 1995/1996 and two M₁. Take a tour along the Alpine Fault, Aotearoa New Zealand’s on-land plate boundary and one of the longest natural straight lines in the world! The fracture zone that forms a transform plate boundary is known as a transform fault. [6], The Pacific Plate originated at the triple junction of the three main oceanic plates of Panthalassa, the Farallon, Phoenix, and Izanagi Plates, around 190 million years ago.The plate formed because the triple junction had converted to an unstable form surrounded on all sides by transform faults, due to the development of a kink in one of the plate boundaries. EARLIER CONCERN OVER IMPACT ON ALPINE FAULT. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand’s South Island. To watch a video of how the plate boundary has changed over millions of years click here The Hikurangi Trough marks the collision boundary to the east of the North Island, and is where oceanic lithosphere (the Pacific Plate) descends beneath the North Island as a huge inclined slab. There are currently three What’s On Our Plates? The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, known as a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island. Take a tour along the Alpine Fault, Aotearoa New Zealand’s on-land plate boundary and one of the longest natural straight lines in the world! Find out how it was discovered and learn what science can tell us about Alpine Fault earthquakes. The Alpine Fault. learning modules are best viewed on a desktop, laptop or tablet, they are not suitable for viewing on mobile phones or small screens. The Alpine Fault marks a transform boundary between the two plates, and further south the Indo-Australian Plate subducts under the Pacific Plate forming the Puysegur Trench. Module 3: Unlocking the Hikurangi subduction zone. [citation needed]. Find out how it was discovered and learn what science can tell us about Alpine Fault earthquakes. ... prepare to drill a deep borehole into the fault early next year to study processes taking place at depth inside a major plate boundary fault. https://tectonics-etc.blogspot.com/2011/04/alpine-fault.html The Alpine fault is the Pacific-Australian plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. [3], Hillis and Müller are reported to consider the Bird's Head Plate to be moving in unison with the Pacific Plate. AF8 [Alpine Fault Magnitude 8] is an award-winning programme of scientific modelling, response planning and community engagement designed to build a collective resilience and preparedness to the next Alpine Fault earthquake event. [7], An oceanic tectonic plate under the Pacific Ocean, "Here are the Sizes of Tectonic or Lithospheric Plates", "On the enigmatic birth of the Pacific Plate within the Panthalassa Ocean", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pacific_Plate&oldid=993308368, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 23:11. Generally the fault has a simple straight trace, striking ca. Take a tour along the Alpine Fault, Aotearoa New Zealand’s on-land plate boundary and one of the longest natural straight lines in the world! The Alpine Fault of New Zealand is an example of _____ plate boundary A) A continental transform The gently sloping and fast-spreading parts of the mid-ocean ridge are called _____ The Alpine Fault is a mature, dextral strike-slip fault that marks the western boundary of the Southern Alps. It is widely recognised that the pioneering work of Harold Wellman, a surveyor, geologist, gold miner and intrepid explorer, revealed the large plate boundary fault in the South Island of New Zealand – the Alpine Fault. is a set of multimedia learning modules designed to enable anyone to explore Aotearoa New Zealand’s active plate boundary online, including the Alpine Fault and Hikurangi subduction zone. Event 3- Seafloor Spreading Location Six Alpine Fault Transform Boundary 5 Event 1- Volcanoes 20 Event 2- Island Spreading Conclusion: Your conclusion will include a summary of the lab results and an interpretation of the results. With the development of plate tectonics in the 1970s, the Alpine Fault was recognised as part of the boundary between Pacific and Australian plates. [citation needed], The southern side is a divergent boundary with the Antarctic Plate forming the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. A geologic map of the Pacific Ocean seabed shows not only the geologic sequences, and associated Ring of Fire zones on the ocean's perimeters, but the various ages of the seafloor in a stairstep fashion, youngest to oldest, the oldest being consumed into the Asian oceanic trenches. The Alpine Fault is one of the world's most intensively studied faultlines. Due to its relative geometric simplicity, high slip rate, and quasi-regular earthquake recurrence, the AF is a paradigm for characterizing “ideal” plate boundary behavior. A 60-strong team of geologists and drillers has set up a drill site in a cow paddock in the Whataroa Valley, north of Franz Josef Glacier, to drill deep into the Alpine Fault. Then come back to the surface and find out about the geo-science underway to unlock the secrets of the Hikurangi subduction zone. Each module ends with a quiz to test students learning. The northern side is a convergent boundary subducting under the North American Plate forming the Aleutian Trench and the corresponding Aleutian Islands. In between, through most of the South Island, the two plates grind past each other along the Alpine Fault. Langridge said researchers in California and New Zealand have a long history of earthquake science collaboration and are learning from each other about the treatment of active faults and fault segmentation for seismic hazard models. The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean. the plate boundary deformation from the Alpine fault to the Hikurangi suhduction zone and the Wairau section is a relic feature carrying only about 10% of the inter-plate You can actually stand with each foot on a separate tectonic plate! Snow on the mountains of the Pacific plate contrasts with the lower land of the Australian plate. The Alpine Fault is sometimes compared with California's San Andreas Fault, being another fast-moving strike slip fault near a plate boundary. The oldest part disappearing by way of the plate tectonics cycle is early-Cretaceous (145 to 137 million years ago). The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. The next level of complexity in explanation addresses the transpressive nature of the Alpine Fault, and the consequent development and continued growth of the Southern Alps. Geologists drilling deep into the Alpine Fault are hoping to understand what goes on before a major plate boundary fault ruptures in an earthquake. The Alpine Fault is sometimes compared with California’s San Andreas Fault, being another fast-moving strike slip fault near a plate boundary. Module 4: Discovering the Alpine Fault. This fault has ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. The Alpine Fault, a transpressional plate boundary between the Australia-Pacific plates, is known to rupture periodically (200-400yr) with large magnitude earthquakes (Mw~8) and is currently nearing the end of its latest interseismic period. The Alpine Fault marks a transform boundary between the two plates, and further south the Indo-Australian Plate subducts under the Pacific Plate forming the Puysegur Trench. AF8 aims to increase awareness, enable conversation and build societal preparedness to natural hazard events in the South Island. Transform Plate Boundaries are locations where two plates slide past one another. The south-eastern side is a divergent boundary with the Nazca Plate forming the East Pacific Rise. : A FOCUSED LOOK AT THE ALPINE FAULT, NEW ZEALAND 2195 The What’s On Our Plates? 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